Rounds Farmers

a) History the Rounds Farmers arose like self-defense organizations, with basic functions of the care of goods and control of the cattle rustling, before the absence of the state authorities or by its little capacity and legitimacy to solve the social conflicts, in the middle of the decade of the 70 of the century passed in the provinces of Chota (Cuyumalca) and Bambamarca, of the department of Cajamarca, to the north of Peru. He is undeniable that Cajamarca is the cradle of the rounds farmers, which find his remote antecedents in the rural guards of aims of Century XIX and in the rounds of property of the first decades of Century XX. With variants, the experience of the rounds farmers has extended towards other important zones of the country. However, at the moment it is not counted on precise information on its number, the subjects and the way in which they solve the cases submissive its knowledge, notwithstanding the multiple studies realised on the individual. They only exist considered not so recent that they indicated that to 1990 3.435 ronderas organizations in the north of Peru existed approximately, corresponding to Cajamarca of total saying the approximated amount of 2.362 rounds farmers. b) Subjects known by the rounds farmers As far as the subjects that know the rounds, declaratively can be mentioned in sequence successive of importance: familiar lawsuits, disputes by earth, robberies of material goods (electrical devices, money, tools, etc.), damages by the animal entrance to other people’s small farms, animal assaults, robbery, paid debts, disputes by water, defamation, robberies of harvests, violation, etc. With respect to how they solve the conflicts, its effectiveness has not been emphasized and the social legitimacy of its decisions, being indicated that they solve through " one pragmatic, nonarbitrary search of the suitable decision more. One is not the application of norms, but of a normative debate, in which the norms form the departure point the discussion are not the facts, that they are already taken by dices.


The dollar is under pressure as investors woke up to the risk appetite in this new year that begins, by solid economic data released today from USA.UU. Commodity prices are the big winners after the data of the Manufacturing PMI for China, which rose to 56.1, this being the highest level since April of 2004. This very strong growth in the manufacturing sector of China, will boost demand for raw materials (Commodities). The speculations of petroleum are optimistic, it is traded at the moment above 81 dollars barrel. The price of gold also rises to a maximum of 1124,6 until now. From published data from USA.UU., the Manufacturing ISM index, rose more than expected to 55.9 in December. The pound sterling was raised against the dollar after the Manufacturing PMI for the United Kingdom, which increased to 54.1, this being the highest level in 25 months. Mortgage approvals also exceeded expectations up to 60.5K.

However, the markets remain cautious by the prospects for the debt of the United Kingdom and the decisions on interest rates that will take the Bank of England this week. The pound is slightly behind other currencies and indeed compared to the basic products and the Euro has weakened. The euro is much weakened against the Canadian dollar and the Australian dollar. For example, the EUR/AUD pair fell sharply toward a minimum of 1,5747 today.